Update 2018: I’ve used a bunch of new tools since I wrote this. I’ll be adding them to the list.

This guide is aimed towards those who are planning on buying their first green woodworking tools. It can be difficult to find out what you should buy. You are often torn between three main, and often conflicting goals: you want to buy good tools, that are easy to come by, for cheap. With this guide I aim to give you some advice, keeping these three goals in mind. Sure, it would be easy to buy great tools with unlimited funds, but most of us are on a budget. And you can easily get cheap tools at your local DIY store, but they aren’t always the best buy. I’ll discuss a couple of different options, so you can decide whether you’re going for cheap and easy, going to save up for something more expensive, or perhaps that it would be better to go for a more challenging solution.

The advice I give below is, of course, based on my own experience. I live in Europe, so it may be easier or harder to get certain items over here than it would be in, say, the United States. I haven’t tried out everything that’s available out there, so if you feel that I’ve missed some important products, feel free to tell me in the comments!

Your two most important tools for carving spoons are your straight, or sloyd knife, and your curved, hook, or crook knife. I’ll discuss these knives first.

Knives
Straight knife: Mora 106

Choosing a straight knife is actually pretty easy: the Mora 106 combines great value for money with excellent availability. I feel you actually can’t get a lot better knives than this. Sure, you can go fancier, but the 106 is hard to beat, performance-wise. I own a bunch of 106’s for teaching, and they are just wonderful. It comes with a very ugly, but very functional, plastic sheath. I use a different Mora knife myself. It’s a blade that you buy without a handle or a sheath, so it involves a bit more work. It’s a bit shorter than the 106, which I like, but otherwise it’s nearly identical. If you feel like making your own handle, I’d go for that one.

good
90%
easy
85%
cheap
90%
Straight knife: Beaver Craft Sloyd knife

From time to time people would ask me if this knife was any good to buy. This maker, Beaver Craft, sells his wares via Etsy (and I believe Amazon as well). He clearly tries to cater to the spoon carver market: he sells these “sloyd knives”, as well as a lot of different hook knives and “spoon carving sets”. The knife looked pretty decent on the picture and the price was even better: cheaper than a Mora 106. I decided to order one to see for myself if these were any good. The knife I was sent looked a bit different from the one in the etsy ad. I was a bit disappointed, to be honest. Sure, you can’t expect quality tools for this price but this guy got so close. The mistakes that he made with this knife could probably be avoided without adding to the cost. Firstly, the geometry of the blade felt off. It was a bit too thick and wide and the bevels were the wrong shape. This knife won’t go into corners as a sloyd knife is supposed to be able to. Secondly, the handle was very bulky and square. I ended up carving it down quite a bit. I’ll also have to regrind the blade pretty drastically. All this extra work is not worth the money you save by not getting a Mora.

good
50%
easy
90%
cheap
100%
Curved knife: Mora 164

Choosing your curved knife is a bit less straight-forward. There’s two options: either you can go cheap and mediocre, or more expensive and difficult to come by, but excellent. The cheap and mediocre option is the Mora 164. This knife is pretty cheap and shouldn’t be too hard to find at your local woodworking store or online. It’s more or less just a bent Mora 106. It comes without a sheath, so you’ll have to make that yourself. Mora makes a couple of other curved knives, such as the 163 and the 162. What sets the 164 apart from these two is that these are sharpened on both sides, while the 164 is only sharpened on one side. The 162 was actually my first curved knife. I bought it without any knowledge of how to carve a spoon. I thought it would be easy to be able to cut both towards myself and away from myself. I did not realize, however, that it is very important to be able to push the back of the blade with your (in my case, being right-handed) left hand. Guiding the blade with the hand that is not holding the knife gives you much more control, and ultimately a cleaner cut. That’s why I would not recomment the 163 or 162.

good
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easy
90%
cheap
90%
Curved knife: Nic Westermann finishing knife

At first glance, the Nic Westermann finishing knife (seen in the illustration at the top of this page) may seem pretty similar to the Mora 164: both are only sharpened on one side, both have a rounder end, which makes them more versatile than knives with a shallower curve. A few characteristics set Nic Westermann’s knife apart from the 164, and make it the best curved knife I’ve ever used: first off, it has a much more sophisticated grind. It is hollow on the inside, which makes it much easier to sharpen, and the outside is one continuous bevel instead of the scandi grind on the Mora. This smooth outside bevel helps to cut across, and even against the grain. The knife has a rounder section at the end, great for deeper bowls, but also a long shallow section, perfect for shallower curves.
So in short: it’s great. What are the downsides? It’s nearly three times the cost of the Mora 164, it comes without a sheath and without a handle. If you really are on a tight budget, go for the Mora 164. But if you can afford it, Nic Westermann’s knives are well worth their cost. Do keep in mind that Nic often has a waiting list, so be prepared to wait for the knife. And don’t worry about making a handle for it: it’s easy. The finishing knife comes with a round tang, so just carve something handle-shaped out of ash, oak, or whatever you have; drill a hole at the top and glue the tang in with a bit of epoxy. Job done.

good
100%
easy
50%
cheap
60%

Spoon-carving-toolsBig

Hatchets et al.
Hatchet: Gränsfors Bruk carving hatchet
To rough out a blank from the log, you need a hatchet. I use a Gränsfors Bruk carving hatchet, which I love. They’re a little over a hundred euros over here, but I’ve seen them for as much as 185 US dollars across the Atlantic. If you can afford it, or can get one for a reasonable price, I’d recommend this one. It’s well worth the money, comes with a good handle and a sheath, and comes razor sharp. It holds a good edge and is exactly the right shape and weight for spoon carving. Keep in mind, though, that this one could be a bit too heavy for you. I’m a big guy and like heavy tools, but I know many carvers who prefer slightly lighter hatchets. I recently tried one of Svante Djärv’s hatchets, which I really liked, and I know Robin Wood also sells some decent hatchets.
good
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easy
90%
cheap
40%
Hatchet: a flea market find

Before I bought my GB carving hatchet, I used an old sandvik hatchet, a flea market find. It only cost me a couple of bucks, and with a few hours of grinding, sharpening and polishing and a new handle I had a perfectly usable hatchet. I’ve seen lots of great hatchet at flea markets, and if you know how to restore them you can possibly get the perfect spoon carving hatchet for next to nothing. It does require some work, skill, luck and persistence, though. If you’re on a budget, I’d recommend trawling your local flea markets, pawn shops and thrift stores for treasure.

good
100%
easy
10%
cheap
90%
Hatchet: a camping hatchet from your local big box or DIY store

I’ve seen many beginning wood carvers starting out with awful camping hatchets from their local DIY store. Nine out of ten times, these are practically unusable for spoon carving. They are often very dull, and the geometry of the bevel is usually far too steep. You could make one of these work, but it would require a complete regrind of the bevel. Oftentimes the grain direction of the handle is way off, and the finish of these tools overall is poor. Of course, there are exceptions, but I haven’t seen them yet. Even if these hatchets are cheap, you’d get bad value for your money. My advice: steer clear.

good
20%
easy
100%
cheap
70%
Saw: Japanese folding saw
You need a good saw for making stop cuts and cutting pieces of wood to length. The best type of saw for this are Japanese pruning saws. These saws cut on the pull stroke. A lot of spoon carvers use Silky saws, and those are great. They can be a bit expensive, though. I use the Orikomi folding saw 250, coarse. This saw is about half the price of its Silky equivalent, and just as good if you ask me.
good
90%
easy
80%
cheap
60%
Bonus: the Leuku

While it’s not really essential, and not many spoon carvers own or use one, I’d like to briefly discuss one of my favorite tools: the Leuku. This is a large knife, traditionally used by the Sami people of Northern Scandinavia. It’s somewhat similar to a machete, but smaller. In its function it’s almost in between the hatchet and the sloyd knife. I use it for finish hewing, splitting and chopping tasks, and courser carving tasks. It’s more delicate and controllable than the hatchet, but more powerful than the knife. I made my Leuku myself, from a Lauri leuku blank.

good
100%
easy
30%
cheap
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Other Essentials
Of course you will also need some other things in your basic spoon carving toolkit, such as a chopping block, and something to keep your tools sharp. Some of these thing you’ll need to buy, but others you can make yourself. I’ll discuss these in an upcoming post.

 


                            

Update: since writing the post below my ideas on carving safety have changed. I no longer believe it’s a good idea to use a thimble, or any type of extra protection while carving. They can encourage unsafe carving practices. If you use unsafe techniques this thimble won’t protect you. You’ll carve straight through it, one day. I’m keeping this tutorial, though, because you may find another use for the thimble. I’ve used it in leatherworking, for example. 

If you’re carving wood with a sloyd knife, many techniques require that you carve towards the thumb of the hand holding the knife. If you’re not careful it’s really easy to accidentally skip out of the wood and into your thumb. That is why I often use a simple leather or suede thimble to protect my thumb. Here’s a little tutorial so that you can make one of these yourself, using only very basic tools.

This (clumsily made) drawing shows the two bits of leather you’ll need. I used some scraps of (I think) buffalo leather, but you can pretty much use anything.

 

Leather carving Thimble

The sizes don’t really matter that much. Those indicated above worked for my thumb, and can be used as a rough guideline.

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Step 1: cut two bits of leather.

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Step 2: put the two bits on top of each other, skin sides facing each other, and cut off the corners.

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Step 3: using a lacing/stitching chisel (or an awl, doesn’t really matter), punch a couple of holes along the sides. Keeping the two bits of leather on top of each other helps to line up the holes.

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Step 4: stitch the two bits of leather together using strong thread, skin sides facing each other. I recommend saddle stitching, which is done with two needles. With a needle on each end of the thread, you basically do two running stitches from opposing sides, making a tiny flat knot inside each hole. If this explanation doesn’t make sense, don’t worry. I’ll write a more detailed post on saddle stitching soon.

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Step 4.5: turn the thing inside out. It should start looking like a thimble by now.

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Step 5: there should be two holes in the middle of the smaller piece of leather. You can put a small stitch in these, pulling them together to make the thimble a bit tighter around the thumb.

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Like that.

 

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Step 6: attach a piece of elastic (from an old pair of boxer shorts for example) to the thimble. Start with the pair of holes closest to the middle, and work your way out. Attach one side first, and then the other.

 

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And that’s it. Leather carving thimble done!



A Kuksa – or Guksi in Finnish, kåsa in Swedish – is a traditional wooden drinking cup. It is usually made out of birch, usually its burl (a bulbous random growth on the tree). They are quite large, and burl is quite difficult to come by and to carve. I recently got a nice burl to carve a kuksa from. But I really didn’t want to ruin it because of my lack of experience in carving these things, so I put it in the freezer for now. Instead, I took a piece of normal birch to practice on and carved these two smaller, tea kuksa’s. One is sanded and the other one is knife finished. both hold about 130ml, just under the average volume of a cup of tea.

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Last summer I wrote a post about building a Japanese tool chest, to take some tools with me while traveling. Over the last year I’ve done a lot of green woodworking. I’ve learned a lot about wood and the tools that are needed to turn that wood into things. I’ve carved a bunch of spoons, some oak spatulas, I’ve made a couple of oak benches, and a bunch of other stuff. I’ve bought and made quite a few new tools as well. This summer we planned to go to the German Eifel to stay in a log cabin in the woods for two weeks, and I came prepared. So, a year after I made the Japanese tool chest, here is my essential green woodworking kit in that chest.

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